Iosif Stalin, Speech Delivered at a Meeting of Voters of the Stalin Electoral District, Moscow. Stalin ruled up until his own death in 1953. [151][152], In Kureika, Stalin lived among the indigenous Tunguses and Ostyak peoples,[153] and spent much of his time fishing. [166] After the demonstration was suppressed, the Provisional Government initiated a crackdown on the Bolsheviks, raiding Pravda. 2 He undermined them by: Establishing a new ideological orthodoxy and branding opponents enemies of Leninism. [487], Going against the advice of Zhukov and other generals, Stalin emphasised attack over defence. [531], In 1944, the Soviet Union made significant advances across Eastern Europe toward Germany,[532] including Operation Bagration, a massive offensive in the Byelorussian SSR against the German Army Group Centre. [907] Wheatcroft and historian R. W. Davies estimate famine deaths at 5.56.5million[908] while scholar Steven Rosefielde gives a number of 8.7million. [134] Lenin, who encouraged Stalin to write an article on the subject,[135] wanted to attract those groups to the Bolshevik cause by offering them the right of secession from the Russian state, but also hoped they would remain part of a future Bolshevik-governed Russia. Answer: No. [3] "Charismatic rule has long been neglected and ridiculed, but apparently it has deep roots and becomes a powerful stimulus once the proper psychological and social doubt that millions believe in it" (Neumann, 1942: p. 75). [251] For Lenin, it was advantageous to have a key ally in this crucial post.[252]. [470] One of the most noted instances was the Katyn massacre of April and May 1940, in which around 22,000 members of the Polish armed forces, police, and intelligentsia were executed. [149] In or about December 1914, their child was born but the infant soon died. [618] With this accomplished, Marxist governments now controlled a third of the world's land mass. [515] Germany attempted an encirclement attack at Kursk, which was successfully repulsed by the Soviets. In 1939, his regime signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland. [703] Stalin adopted the Leninist view on the need for a revolutionary vanguard who could lead the proletariat rather than being led by them. However these factors aided him to become future leader of Russia. [787] He was capable of self-righteous indignation,[788] and was resentful,[789] and vindictive,[790] holding on to grudges for many years. [875], Stalin's Soviet Union has been characterised as a totalitarian state,[876] with Stalin its authoritarian leader. [526] There, Stalin and Roosevelt got on well, with both desiring the post-war dismantling of the British Empire. [534] Cautiously regarding the responses from the Western Allies, Stalin avoided immediately installing Communist Party governments across Eastern Europe, instead initially ensuring that Marxist-Leninists were placed in coalition ministries. "[921] In a 2017 interview, Putin added that while "we should not forget the horrors of Stalinism", the excessive demonization of "Stalin is a means to attack [the] Soviet Union and Russia". [550] Soviet forces continued to expand until they occupied all their territorial concessions, but the U.S. rebuffed Stalin's desire for the Red Army to take a role in the Allied occupation of Japan. Stalin contained a lot of bad leadership characteristics but I have cut it down to some of the worst in my opinion. [770] According to Volkogonov, "Stalin's private life and working life were one and the same"; he did not take days off from political activities. [555] Various East European communists also visited Stalin in Moscow. [773] Several historians have seen it as appropriate to follow Lazar Kaganovich's description of there being "several Stalins" as a means of understanding his multi-faceted personality. [158] Stalin was in the city when the February Revolution took place; uprisings broke out in Petrograd as Saint Petersburg had been renamed and Tsar Nicholas II abdicated to escape being violently overthrown. Despite calls of "some Russians" to "beatify" Stalin, the Russian Orthodox Church has stood its ground in refusing to do so. [400], Seeking improved international relations, in 1934 the Soviet Union secured membership of the League of Nations, from which it had previously been excluded. Although concerns were expressed that adopting this new post on top of his others would overstretch his workload and give him too much power, Stalin was appointed to the position. [17] In September 1888, Stalin enrolled at the Orthodox Gori Church School,[18] a place secured by Charkviani. Instead, the KMT repressed the Communists and a civil war broke out between the two sides.[308]. [471], The speed of the German victory over and occupation of France in mid-1940 took Stalin by surprise. [929][930] At the same time, there was a growth in pro-Stalinist literature in Russia, much relying upon the misrepresentation or fabrication of source material. [409] Germany and Italy backed the Nationalist faction, which was ultimately victorious in March 1939. Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's death in 1924. [381] In 1936, Nikolai Yezhov became head of the NKVD. Despite initial catastrophes, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German invasion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe. [348] He warned of a "danger from the right", including in the Communist Party itself. [438], Stalin initiated all key decisions during the Terror, personally directing many of its operations and taking an interest in their implementation. [461] On 28 September, Germany and the Soviet Union exchanged some of their newly conquered territories; Germany gained the linguistically Polish-dominated areas of Lublin Province and part of Warsaw Province while the Soviets gained Lithuania. [899] Socialist writers like Volkogonov have acknowledged that Stalin's actions damaged "the enormous appeal of socialism generated by the October Revolution". Georgy Malenkov was nominally the next leader after . [301] Other important supporters on the Politburo were Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich, and Sergo Ordzhonikidze,[302] with Stalin ensuring his allies ran the various state institutions. He was captured by the German Army and then committed suicide. [206] At the same time, he disregarded orders and repeatedly threatened to resign when affronted. [274] Favouring new Communist Party members from proletarian backgrounds, to the "Old Bolsheviks" who tended to be middle class university graduates,[275] he ensured he had loyalists dispersed across the country's regions. A 2012 survey commissioned by the Carnegie Endowment found 38% of Armenians concurring that their country "will always have need of a leader like Stalin. [539] Privately, Stalin sought to ensure that Poland would come fully under Soviet influence. [693] During the period of his revolutionary activity, Stalin regarded some of Lenin's views and actions as being the self-indulgent activities of a spoiled migr, deeming them counterproductive for those Bolshevik activists based within the Russian Empire itself. Stalin was clever in his tactics to become leader. [477] Despite intelligence agencies repeatedly warning him of Germany's intentions, Stalin was taken by surprise. [925] A 2013 survey by Tbilisi State University found 45% of Georgians expressing "a positive attitude" to him. [853] Conversely, Stalin had an affectionate relationship with Svetlana during her childhood,[854] and was also very fond of Artyom. [394], In 193536, Stalin oversaw a new constitution; its dramatic liberal features were designed as propaganda weapons, for all power rested in the hands of Stalin and his Politburo. [501] The Internationale was dropped as the country's national anthem, to be replaced with a more patriotic song. the unchallenged leader of the Soviet Union. [111] In March 1910, he was arrested again and sent back to Solvychegodsk. [779] He lacked compassion,[785] something Volkogonov suggested might have been accentuated by his many years in prison and exile,[786] although he was capable of acts of kindness to strangers, even amid the Great Terror. [403] Stalin nevertheless recognised the threat posed by fascism and sought to establish better links with the liberal democracies of Western Europe;[404] in May 1935, the Soviets signed a treaty of mutual assistance with France and Czechoslovakia. [598] In September 1949 the Western powers transformed Western Germany into an independent Federal Republic of Germany; in response the Soviets formed East Germany into the German Democratic Republic in October. [268] Stalin took charge of the funeral and was one of its pallbearers; against the wishes of Lenin's widow, the Politburo embalmed his corpse and placed it within a mausoleum in Moscow's Red Square. [687] He believed that the working classes would prove successful in this struggle and would establish a dictatorship of the proletariat,[688] regarding the Soviet Union as an example of such a state. "We have lost one of the tallest socialist leaders, who remained deeply committed to the ideals of . Fair warning: if the title isn't enough of a clue, there's a lot in this game . [293] In mid-1926, Kamenev and Zinoviev joined with Trotsky's supporters to form the United Opposition against Stalin;[294] in October they agreed to stop factional activity under threat of expulsion, and later publicly recanted their views under Stalin's command. [650], On 1 March 1953, Stalin's staff found him semi-conscious on the bedroom floor of his Kuntsevo Dacha. [720] In private he often used coarse language and profanity, although avoided doing so in public. [222] In December 1918, he drew up decrees recognising Marxist-governed Soviet republics in Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia;[223] during the civil war these Marxist governments were overthrown and the Baltic countries became fully independent of Russia, an act Stalin regarded as illegitimate. [123], In May 1912, he was arrested again and imprisoned in the Shpalerhy Prison, before being sentenced to three years exile in Siberia. [613] When the U.S. and UK remained opposed to this, Stalin sought to force their hand by blockading Berlin in June 1948. [891] Khlevniuk noted that at various points, particularly when Stalin was old and frail, there were "periodic manifestations" in which the party oligarchy threatened his autocratic control. [328] Many of the collectivised peasants resented the loss of their private farmland,[329] and productivity slumped. [868] According to historian Kevin McDermott, interpretations of Stalin range from "the sycophantic and adulatory to the vitriolic and condemnatory. [503], In April 1942, Stalin overrode Stavka by ordering the Soviets' first serious counter-attack, an attempt to seize German-held Kharkov in eastern Ukraine. [780] Stalin denied to foreign visitors that he was a dictator, stating that those who labelled him such did not understand the Soviet governance structure. [663] At the funeral on 9 March, Stalins body was laid to rest in Lenin's Mausoleum in Red Square; hundreds of thousands attended. [45] He had a light workload and therefore had plenty of time for revolutionary activity. [303] According to Montefiore, at this point "Stalin was the leader of the oligarchs but he was far from a dictator". [940] There have also been requests by communist officials to canonize Stalin as an official saint, although these requests were never implemented the author referencing the church's suffering under Stalin's rule. [211] His use of state violence and terror was at a greater scale than most Bolshevik leaders approved of;[212] for instance, he ordered several villages to be torched to ensure compliance with his food procurement program. Stalin, under the rules of the Party, was now the de-facto successor of Lenin. [586], In the aftermath of the Second World War, the British Empire declined, leaving the U.S. and USSR as the dominant world powers. [98], In Baku, Stalin secured Bolshevik domination of the local RSDLP branch[99] and edited two Bolshevik newspapers, Bakinsky Proletary and Gudok ("Whistle"). Firstly, the divisions within the party, made his task of eliminating people less complicated, he only had individuals, not groups of people against him. He used no principles, no mercy, and no ethics. [924] He remains a revered figure among many Russian nationalists, who feel nostalgic about the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War II,[925] and he is regularly invoked approvingly within both Russia's far-left and far-right. [892], A vast literature devoted to Stalin has been produced. [912] In 1956, Khrushchev gave his "Secret Speech", titled "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences", to a closed session of the Party's 20th Congress. Using the idea of collective responsibility as a basis, Stalin's government abolished their autonomous republics and between late 1943 and 1944 deported the majority of their populations to Central Asia and Siberia. [556] In June 1945, Stalin adopted the title of Generalissimus,[558] and stood atop Lenin's Mausoleum to watch a celebratory parade led by Zhukov through Red Square. Widely considered to be one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international MarxistLeninist movement, which revered him as a champion of the working class and socialism. [270] To bolster his image as a devoted Leninist, Stalin gave nine lectures at Sverdlov University on the "Foundations of Leninism", later published in book form. [290], In late 1924, Stalin moved against Kamenev and Zinoviev, removing their supporters from key positions. [119] Lenin believed that Stalin, as a Georgian, would help secure support for the Bolsheviks from the empire's minority ethnicities. [645] He was very interested in the reigns of Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. During a brief period back in Tiflis, Stalin and the Outfit planned the ambush of a mail coach, during which most of the group although not Stalin were apprehended by the authorities. [864], It was long rumored that Stalin married a sister of Lazar Kaganovich. The Soviets invaded Finland in November 1939, yet despite numerical inferiority, the Finns kept the Red Army at bay. [870] In under three decades, Stalin transformed the Soviet Union into a major industrial world power,[871] one which could "claim impressive achievements" in terms of urbanisation, military strength, education and Soviet pride. [495] Responding to the invasion, the Soviets intensified their industrial enterprises in central Russia, focusing almost entirely on production for the military. [120] In February 1912, Stalin again escaped to Saint Petersburg,[121] tasked with converting the Bolshevik weekly newspaper, Zvezda ("Star") into a daily, Pravda ("Truth"). [96] After the heist, Stalin settled in Baku with his wife and son. [430] He also initiated "national operations", the ethnic cleansing of non-Soviet ethnic groupsamong them Poles, Germans, Latvians, Finns, Greeks, Koreans, and Chinesethrough internal or external exile. [30] According to Stalin's biographer Simon Sebag Montefiore, they became "minor Georgian classics"[31] and were included in various anthologies of Georgian poetry over the coming years. [491] With Order No. [673], Stalin claimed to have embraced Marxism at the age of fifteen,[677] and it served as the guiding philosophy throughout his adult life;[678] according to Kotkin, Stalin held "zealous Marxist convictions",[679] while Montefiore suggested that Marxism held a "quasi-religious" value for Stalin. [847], Stalin's second wife was Nadezhda Alliluyeva; theirs was not an easy relationship, and they often fought. [94] He attended the Fifth RSDLP Congress, held at the Brotherhood Church in London in MayJune 1907. [640] He instructed the arrested doctors to be tortured to ensure confession. As the majority of excess deaths under Stalin were not direct killings, the exact number of victims of Stalinism is difficult to calculate due to lack of consensus among scholars on which deaths can be attributed to the regime. [530] Discussing the fate of the Balkans, later in 1944 Churchill agreed to Stalin's suggestion that after the war, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and Yugoslavia would come under the Soviet sphere of influence while Greece would come under that of the West. Ruthless in his conduct, moderate estimates suggest that he was directly responsible for the death of 40 million people. He was a true believer". [362] The government's anti-religious campaign was re-intensified,[363] with increased funding given to the League of Militant Atheists. Either we do this or we'll be crushed. [267], Lenin died in January 1924. As a result Stalin was left as the ruler of the Ussr. This has been a period replete with events of a decisive nature. [651] He had suffered a cerebral haemorrhage. [115] He escaped to Saint Petersburg,[116] where he was arrested in September 1911 and sentenced to a further three-year exile in Vologda. [341] New mines were opened, new cities like Magnitogorsk constructed, and work on the White Sea-Baltic Canal began. [601] In 1949, celebrations took place to mark Stalin's seventieth birthday (although he was 71 at the time,) at which Stalin attended an event in the Bolshoi Theatre alongside MarxistLeninist leaders from across Europe and Asia. [494] Amid the fighting, both the German and Soviet armies disregarded the law of war set forth in the Geneva Conventions;[495] the Soviets heavily publicised Nazi massacres of communists, Jews, and Romani. [496] Stalin exploited Nazi anti-Semitism, and in April 1942 he sponsored the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC) to garner Jewish and foreign support for the Soviet war effort. 03:14. [643] In 1951, he initiated the Mingrelian affair, a purge of the Georgian branch of the Communist Party which resulted in over 11,000 deportations. [255] Residing at his Gorki dacha, Lenin's main connection to Sovnarkom was through Stalin, who was a regular visitor. [586] Much of this was constructed by prison labour. Comrade Stalin constantly warns us that not conceit but modesty distinguishes the Bolshevik, that any leader, in whatever post he may be, is the servant of the people. [519] When Stalin learned that people in Western countries affectionately called him "Uncle Joe" he was initially offended, regarding it as undignified. Chennai (Tamil Nadu) [India], January 14 (ANI) Tamil Nadu Chief Minister MK Stalin on Saturday took a veiled dig at Governor RN Ravi without mentioning his name during a Youth wing event organised to remember DMK founder Peraringar Anna. "[884] In both the Soviet Union and elsewhere he came to be portrayed as an "Oriental despot". [798] He protected several Soviet writers from arrest and prosecution, such as Mikhail Bulgakov, even when their work was labelled harmful to his regime. 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